THE SECOND REBELLION OF THE PRETENDER TO THE BRITISH THRONE
in the year 1745.
"Whatever private views and passions plead,
NO cause can justify so black a deed;
These, when the angry 'tempest clouds the soul,
May darken reason, and her course controul;
But when the prospect clears, her startled eye
Must, from the treacherous gulph, with horror fly,
On whose wide wave, by stormy passions tost,
So many hapless wretches have been lost.
Then be this truth the star by which we steer,
Above ourselves, our COUNTRY should be dear."
THE same pretext used to foment a discontent to the reigning family, and to set up the standard of the House of Stuart, again burst forth at this period of time, with a much more serious aspect than the rebellion of 171 5. Having already given an account of the rise and quelling of that public revolt, to which we again refer our reader, we shall proceed to a more ample history of that, now before us -- the most remarkable circumstance that had happened for some centuries.
When England was now attacked, by the disaffected Scotchmen, she was involved in an expensive war with her ancient enemy, France. Her armies were fighting under the Duke of Cumberland, in Germany, and her fleets sufficiently employed in watching the motions of their enemy. King George, tho' then seated on the English throne, in one part of this war, in person commanded his army, and won the celebrated battle of Dettington, where he evinced much personal courage. When the rebellion broke out in Scotland, the King was on a visit to his dominions in Hanover.
The French, being at war, with Britain, thought the time favourable to wound its internal peace, by espousing the cause of the Pretender. Not that they cared about him or his pretence to the crown, but he appeared an excellent instrument for that purpose. The very same policy they adopted when Britain was at war with her rebellious colonies in America. The French assisted them, not from affection, but through them to wound the crown, under which they had been fostered for so many years.
That government was not apprised of the preparations making to assist the Pretender, is evident from the King's speech on the 2d of May, 1745, the very time, they were going on, wherein he informs his parliament, "that the posture of affairs abroad had received a very considerable alteration, to the advantage of the common cause, and that thereby the influence of France was much weakened and diminished, and a way opened to restore that strength and power to our ancient and natural allies, which would tend greatly to the re-establishment and security of the balance of Europe." On the 10th, the King, having placed the government of the nation in the hands of John, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and nineteen other Privy Counsellors, he embarked at Harwich, on a visit to Hanover.
The first notice which the British public had of the, proceedings of the, Pretender, was from a paragraph in the General Evening Post, which said, "The Pretender's eldest son put to sea, July 14, from France, in an armed ship of sixty guns, provided with a large quantity of war-like stores, together with a frigate of thirty guns, and a number of smaller armed vessels, in order to land in Scotland, where he expected to find twenty thousand men in arms, to make good his, pretensions to the crown of Great Britain. He was to be joined by five ships of the line from Brest, and 4,500 Spaniards were embarking at Ferrol."
Through different channels this news was confirmed, and the nation thrown into the utmost alarm. King George II. on being apprised of it, instantly prepared to return, and arrived in London on the 31st of August, amid the acclamations of his loyal subjects, and a discharge of artillery. The Park and Tower guns had fired only a week before, on the taking of Cape Breton.
The Pretender, followed by about fifty Scotch and Irish adventurers, came incog. through Normandy, and on the 18th of July embarked on board a ship of war of 18 guns, which was joined off Belleisle by the Elizabeth and other ships. They intended to have sailed north about, and land in Scotland. On the 20th they came up with an English fleet of merchant vessels, under convoy of the Lion man of war, of 58 guns, commanded by Captain Brett, who immediately bore down upon the French line-of-battle ship, which he engaged within pistol shot five hours, and was constantly annoyed by the smaller ships of the enemy. The rigging of the Lion was cut to pieces; her mizen-mast, mizen-top-mast, main-yard, and foretop-sail, were shot away; all her lower-masts and top-masts shot through in many places, so that she lay muzzled in the sea, and could do nothing with her sails. Thus situated, the French ships sheered off, and the Lion could make no effort to follow them. Captain Brett had forty-five men killed; himself, all his lieutenants, the master, several midshipmen, and one hundred and seven foremast men wounded. His principal antagonist, the Elizabeth; with difficulty got back to Brest, quite disabled, and had sixty-four men killed, one hundred and thirty-nine dangerously wounded, and a number more slightly. She had on board 400,000l. sterling, and arms and ammunition for several thousand men.
The French court, the expedition thus miscarrying, pretended ignorance of the circumstance.
Meanwhile, the Camerons, the Macdonalds, and many other clans, were in arms, in expectation of their friends from France. They came down into. the low-lands in parties, and carried off, by force, many men to fill their ranks, and committed various disorders.
The Pretender having embarked in another ship, again sailed from France, and eluded the English cruisers, so as to give him an opportunity of landing, which he effected with his followers, on the Isle of Sky, opposite to Lochaber, in the county of Inverness, about the end of. the, month of July, and took up his residence at the house of a Papist priest, with whom he remained three weeks, while his emissaries were raising men for his service. At length at the head of about two thousand he began his, march-under a standard, on which was the motto "TANDEM TRIUMPHANS." -- "At length triumphant."
The rebels now marched towards Fort William, where the Pretender published a manifesto, which his father had signed at Rome; containing abundant promises to such as would adhere to his cause; two of which were a dissolution of the union between the two kingdoms, and a payment of the national debt.
This circumstance induced many of the ignorant country people to flock to his standard, till at length his undisciplined rabble began to assume the appearance of an army, which struck terror to the well- affected wherever it came.
These transactions, however, had not passed so secretly, but that the governor of Fort William informed the Lord Justice Clerk of Edinburgh of all he could learn of the. affair; on which the latter dispatched an express to the north, ordering the assistance of all officers, civil and military; and this express arrived about the time the Pretender erected his standard.
The Governor of Fort William having received these orders, dispatched two companies of St. Clair's and Murray's regiments of foot, to oppose the rebels. They were attacked by a far superior number of Highlanders, which they contended against, until they fired away all their ammunition; after which they were attacked in front, flank, and rear, and near half their number killed, before they surrendered. Captain Scott, their brave commander, was wounded; but the rebels gave him and his remaining officers their parole of honour; the private soldiers were sent to prison.
In the interim the Lord Justice Clerk ordered Sir John Cope, commander in chief of the forces in the South Scotland, to march against the rebels; but in making the circuit of the immense mountains of Argyleshire, the two armies failed to meet; on which Sir John went to Inverness, to refresh his troops after the fatigue of the March.
The armies having thus casually missed each other, the rebels proceeded to Perth, and having taken possession of that place, the Pretender issued his orders for all persons who were in possession of public money, to pay it into the hands of his secretary, whose receipts should be a full acquittal for the same.
The rebel numbers had now greatly increased, and in September the Pretender issued a proclamation. The provost and magistrates left the city, and others were immediately appointed in their room. Here the rebels were joined by the Duke of Perth, Lord George Murray, Lord Nairn, the Hon. William Murray, Messrs. Oliphant, father and son, of Gask, George Kelly, Esq. who, with the late bishop of Rochester, was committed to the Tower, and thence escaped, and several other Scotch gentlemen of influence, with their followers, making a formidable army.
The official papers distributed began thus: "Charles, Prince of Wales, and Regent of Scotland, England, France, and Ireland, and of the Dominions thereto belonging."
In the mean time general Cope sent from Inverness an express to Aberdeen, for the transport Vessels in that harbour to be ready to receive his troops; and embarking on the 18th of September, he disembarked them at Dunbar.
During these transactions General Quest, who commanded the castle of Edinburgh, gave the magistrates of that city several pieces of cannon for the defence of the place; and Colonel James Gardiner repaired from Stirling to Edinburgh, with two regiments of dragoons; but learning that General Cope had landed at Dunbar, which is twenty- seven Miles east of Edinburgh, he proceeded lo effect a junction with that general.
On the 7th another party of rebels took possession of the town of Dundee, proclaimed the Pretender, searched for arms, and levied money on the inhabitants, giving receipts for the same. They seized a ship, and steered her to Perth, supposing there was gunpowder on board. On the 11th they left Perth, and marched that day to Dunblaine, twenty miles; the next day only two, to Down. They crossed the Forth at the fords of Frews, on the 13th, General Blakeney having destroyed the bridge; and directed their march towards Glasgow; but the next day they turned to the eastward, and marched by Falkirk to Cullington, four miles from Edinburgh.
EDINBURGH TAKEN BY SURPRISE.
The following day the Pretender proceeded through the royal park, and took possession of Holyrood-House. The money in the bank of Edinburgh, and the records in the public offices, were now removed to the castle for security, and the gates of the city were kept fast during the whole day; but five hundred of the rebels having concealed themselves in the suburbs, took an opportunity, at four o'clock the next morning, to follow a coach which was going in and seizing the gate called the Netherbow, they maintained their ground while, the body reached the centre of the city, and formed themselves in the Parliament Close.
Thus possessed of the capital, they seized two thousand stand of arms, and, on the following day, marched to oppose the Royal army, under the command of General Cope; and the two armies being within sight of each other, near Preston Pans, on the evening of the 20th, Colonel Gardiner earnestly recommended it to the general to attack them during the night; but deaf to this advice he kept the men under arms, till morning, though they were already greatly harassed.
At five in the morning the rebels made a furious attack on the royal army, and threw them into unspeakable confusion, by two regiments of dragoons falling back on the foot. Colonel Gardiner, with 400 foot, behaved with uncommon valour, and covered the retreat of those who fled, but the colonel receiving a mortal wound, the rebels made prisoners of the rest of the King's troops.
The following account of this disaster was issued. from Whitehall, London:
"By an express arrived this morning, we are informed that Sir John Cope, with the troops under his command, were attacked by the rebels on the 21st instant, at day break, at Preston, near Seaton, seven miles from Edinburgh; that the King's troops were defeated, and that Sir John Cope, with about four hundred and fifty dragoons, had retired to Lauder; Brigadier Fawkes and Colonel Lascelles, had got to Lauder. The Earls of Loudon and Hume were at Dundee, with Sir John Cope."
The loss sustained by the King's troops was, Killed 300 Wounded 450 Taken prisoners 520 Total 1270
The rebels did not lose more than fifty men.
Flushed with this partial victory, the rebels returned in high spirits to Edinburgh. They now sent foraging parties through the country, with orders to seize all the horses and waggons they could find: and, in the interim, a party of the insurgents attempted to throw up an intrenchment on the castle-hill. Hereupon the governor, necessitated to oppose the assailants, yet anxious for the safety of the inhabitants, sent a messenger in the night, to intimate to those who lived near the castle-hill, that they would do well to remove out of danger.
As soon as it was day-light, the battery of the rebels was destroyed by a discharge of the great cannon from the half-moon, and thirty of them killed, with three of the inhabitants, who had rashly ventured near the spot.
The governor being greatly deficient in provisions, a gentleman ordered above 50 fine bullocks to be driven into the city on a pretence that they were for the use of the rebels; and the person who drove them leaving them on the castle-hill, the governor and five hundred men sallied forth and drove them in at the gate, while the rebels played their artillery with unremitting fury.
While the rebels continued in Edinburgh, which was about seven weeks, some noblemen and their adherents joined them; so that their army amounted to almost ten thousand men, They now levied large contributions; not only in Edinburgh, but through the adjacent country; and those who furnished them received receipts, signed,
"CHARLES, Prince Regent."
The officers taken at the battle of Preston, were admitted to their parole, but the privates were ill treated. Their allowance-was only three-halfpence each per day, and their prison filthy, and destitute of accommodations. This was practised in order to cause them to enlist under the banner of the Pretender and they were tampered with, promised the best treatment, new clothing, and five guineas per man, on their "taking St. James's Palace." One hundred and twenty, oppressed by hunger, and tempted by allurement, were not able to withstand either the calls or the temptation, and turned rebels and papists: thus forfeiting their honour and their lives. It is curious to remark, that not a man of these apostate traitors survived their newly adopted cause, for such as were not killed in the various engagements which took place before the rebellion could be quelled, fell into the hands of their injured countrymen, who hanged them all on the gallows; and thus let every traitor perish!
About this time some ships from France arrived in the Forth, laden with ammunition; and a person who attended the Pretender was dignified with the title of ambassador from his most Christian Majesty.
General Wade had now the command of some forces which had reached Yorkshire; and some Dutch troops being sent to augment his forces, he marched to Newcastle, with a view to deter the rebels from entering the southern part of the kingdom.
That celebrated prelate, the late Dr. Herring, archbishop of York, distinguished himself gloriously on this interesting occasion. Joining with the high sheriff to assemble the freeholders, the archbishop preached an animated sermon to them; and then the several parties agreed to assist each other in support of their civil and religious rights. Many people in Yorkshire were prevented from engaging in the rebellion by this spirited and well-timed conduct.
The Lord President Forbes, and the Earl of Loudon, acted in a manner equally zealous in Scotland. Having collected a number of the loyal Highlanders into a body, many others who would have joined the rebels were thereby deterred; and this proceeding proved of the most essential service towards the suppression of the rebellion.
The rebels quitted Edinburgh in the beginning of November, marched to Dalkeith where they encamped; and a report was circulated that they proposed to make an attack on Lerwick; but this was only a contrivance to conceal their real designs.
In the mean time more than a thousand of the rebels deserted, in consequence of General Wade's publishing a pardon to such as would return to their duty as good subjects, within a limited time. Still, however, they had above eight thousand men able to bear arms; yet General Wade would have marched to attack them, but that his soldiers were ill of the flux, owing to the severity of the season, and the fatigues they had undergone.
THE CITY OF CARLISLE BESIEGED AND TAKEN.
Emboldened by success, and their force increased, the rebels now determined to penetrate into England. On Saturday, the 9th of October, about three o'clock in the afternoon, the inhabitants of that ancient city were thrown into the greatest alarm, at seeing a body of them on Stanwix-bank, within a quarter of a mile of them; and it being market- day there, they mixed with the country people returning home, so that it was not possible for the garrison to fire upon their for some time, without risque of injuring their neighbours along with their enemies; but in less than half an hour the country people dispersed themselves, and then the garrison of the castle fired a ten-gun battery upon them, which, it is believed, killed several; then, night coming on, they retreated to a greater distance from the city and the garrison stood all the night under arms.. At two in the morning a thick fog came on, which remained till twelve that day, when it cleared up for about an hour, and. then the garrison discovered the rebels approaching to attack the city in three several ways, one at Stanwix-bank, commanded by the Duke of Perth; another at Shading-gate-lane, commanded by the Marquis of Tullibardine, who also had the artillery; and the third in Blackwell-fields, where the Pretender commanded the rest of their body facing the English-gate. Upon discovering these three parties approaching so near to the city, the garrison fired upon them, viz. the four-gun battery upon the Marquis of Tullibardine; who was heard to say, "Gentlemen, we have not meta! for them, retreat;" which they immediately did; and disappeared. The turret guns and the citadel guns were: fired upon the Pretender's division, where the white flag was displayed, which was seen to fall; about the same time the ten-gun battery was fired upon the Duke of Perth's division, who also retired. Then the thick fog struck in again, and all the inhabitants of the city expected nothing but that a general assault would be made by the rebels, against which the walls were well lined with men; and Sir John.Pennington; Dr. Waugh, Chancellor Humphry Senhouse, Joseph Daire Ralston; of Acron-bank, esquires, with several other gentlemen of note; were all night under arms, to encourage and assist them. The militia was also drawn up at the foot of Castle-street, to be ready in case of a forcible attack, to relieve and reinforce the men upon the walls. On Monday Morning, the fog still continuing thick, the garrison could not observe the situation of the rebels, but heard their pipers playing not far from the English-gate. About ten o'clock a man was let down from the city walls, to reconnoitre the enemy; and he found they were retiring towards Warwick bridge. In the afternoon other spies were likewise detached to observe their motions, and discovered a great number remaining about Warwick-bridge; but the Pretender, with his guard and attendants, were advanced to Brampton; where they lodged themselves that night; and on Tuesday they lay idle from all action, except feats of rapine and plunder; for they spent the day in hunting and destroying the sheep of Lord Carlisle's tenants, and bearing off the country people's geese, and other poultry, They also seized upon all the horses they could lay hands on, without any question relating to value or property notwithstanding they declared the design of their expedition was to redress grievances, and correct abuses. Tuesday night the rebels slept quietly. On Wednesday morning about ten o'clock they displayed the white flag at Warwick-bridge-end, to which they were about three hours in repairing. About one o'clock the young Pretender, attended by Lord George Murray, the Duke of Perth, and several others, besides those called his guard, came to them; upon which they formed themselves, and. began to march again to Carlisle, in the following order, first, two (named Hussars) in Highland dresses, and high rough red caps, like pioneers: next, about half a dozen of the chief leaders, followed by a kettle-drum; then the. Pretender's son, at the head of about 110 horse, called his guards, two and two a-breast; after these a confused multitude of all sorts of mean people to the number, as was supposed, of about six thousand.. In this order they advanced to the height of Warwick-moor; where they halted about half an hour, and took an attentive view of the city; from thence the foot took the lead, and so marched to Carlisle about three in the afternoon, when they began a fresh assault, and the city renewed their fire. On Thursday it was discovered that the rebels had thrown up a trench, which intimidated the town, and in a consultation it was resolved to capitulate, a deputation was sent to the Pretender, at Brampton, and the town and castle were delivered up on Friday morning.
During this progress and success of the rebels, the English government were not waiting the event of a battle, without making every effort to entirely quell the rebellion. The city of London addressed the king, in terms of great loyalty, and offered contributions for that purpose. The example of the metropolis was followed by almost every corporate body in the kingdom. The flower of the English army, as we have already observed, was in Germany; had they, instead of the new levies then engaged, fought at Preston, the issue of that battle would most likely have terminated the rebellion.
The King now thought fit to send for his son the Duke of Cumberland, to command against the rebels; and with him eight battalions and nine squadrons returned, from fighting foreign foes, to quell a civil war at home. On his arrival he immediately took the command; and soon followed his veteran troops towards the north. He arrived in Staffordshire, at the time when the rebels had penetrated as far as the town of Derby.
Both houses of parliament now assembled, a bill was passed for suspending the habeas corpus act for six months: by which the King was, for that period, empowered to seize all suspected persons, and commit them to prison, without specifying the reason of such Commitment. [Note: The right of the writ of habeas corpus is one of the most valuable privileges of an Englishman. By virtue of it the body cannot be detained without shewing cause to the Court of King's Bench. It guards us from oppressions, and is productive of many advantages in the security of our rights and liberties. Hence its suspension is not trusted to the King himself, except upon the most urgent necessity, such as an invasion, rebellion, or insurrection.]
The effects of this act were the apprehension and commitment of many suspected persons in both kingdoms; but it did not appear to stop the progress of the rebellion.
The duke now expected a junction of the forces under General Wade, who had marched from Newcastle to Darlington, and taking a westward course, had stationed his troops near Wetherby. The rebels having advice of this motion, it was proposed by some of them to march into North Wales; but others opposed this on the presumption, that they should then be surrounded by the royal army, and compelled to surrender themselves prisoners at discretion, as they would have no opportunity of retreating into Scotland. They therefore determined to push their cause to the very utmost; and for this purpose advanced by more rapid Marches to the southward; than the king's troops could have endured, until they actually penetrated into the very heart and centre of England.
Liverpool was not behind London in spirit and loyalty. The inhabitants contributed largely in assisting the royal army at this inclement season, with warm clothing, and raised several companies of armed men, which were called the Royal Liverpool Blues. Some of the advanced parties of rebels having appeared in sight of the town, every, preparation was made to resist them. Finding at length that the pretender bent his march by another route for Manchester, the Liverpool Blues marched in order to destroy the brides, and thereby impede their progress, This service they effected,, breaking them down at Warrington, over the river Mersey, as far as Stockport. They seized two of the rebels, whom they handcuffed and, sent to Chester Gaol.
Notwithstanding these impediments, the rebels crossed the Mersey, at different fords, through which the Pretender waded breast high in water. Their numbers could not be accurately ascertained, their march being straggling and unequal, but about 9000 appeared the aggregate. Their train of artillery, consisted of sixteen field-pieces of three and four-pound shot, two carriages of gunpowder, a number of covered waggons, and about 109 horses laden with ammunition. Their vanguard consisted of about 200 cavalry, badly mounted, the horses appearing poor and jaded.
On entering the town of Macclesfield, they ordered the usual bellman to go round and, give notice, that billets must forthwith be ready for 5,000 men, their first division, on pain of military execution. The Pretender himself constantly marched on foot, at the head of two regiments, one of which was appropriated as his body-guard. His dress was a light plaid, belted about with a sash of blue silk; he wore a grey wig, with a blue bonnet and a white rose in it. He appeared very dejected at this time. His followers were ordinary, except the two regiments mentioned, which appeared to have been, picked, out of the whole, to form them. The arms of the others were very indifferent. Some had guns, others only pistols, the remainder broad swords and targets. They committed various depredations in their progress, seizing all the horses, and plundering the houses and the farm-yards.
In this manner they proceeded to Derby. At Manchester, where they raised a regiment, it was apprehended, and not without reason, that they might have reached the Metropolis, the duke not being fully prepared, or by their retrograde motions might have missed them, as happened in the outset with Sir John Cope in the mountains of Arglyeshire. Though we cannot consistently with the plan of our work, occupy many more pages, yet, on a subject like this, so highly important at the time it occurred, and new to a great portion of our readers, a description of the behaviour of this rebellious faction in Manchester and Derby, with the panic which seized them, and their flight back to Scotland, cannot be unacceptable.
On the 28th of November, an advanced party of rebels entered Manchester, immediately beat up for volunteers, and enlisted several papists and nonjurors, to whom they promised five guineas each, but gave them little more than white cockades, and what they called enlisting money. They then ordered quarters to be prepared for 10,000 men. Upon the arrival of the main body, a detachment examined the best houses, fixed on one for the Pretender, and others for the principal officers. They ordered the bellman to go round the town, and give notice to all persons belonging to the excise, innkeepers, &c. forthwith to appear, and bring their acquittances and rolls, and all the ready cash they had in their hands, belonging to government, on pain of military execution.
The Pretender was then proclaimed king Of England, and the terrified inhabitants were ordered to illuminate their houses.
In order to deceive the Duke of Cumberland, whose army was augmenting in Staffordshire, sometimes they gave out that their route was for Chester; then to Knutsford, Middlewich, and Nantwich; at other times they pretended they were going. into Wales. The Duke, however, took those measures which could not fail checking their progress, should they push for London, which now was greatly apprehended; and in short, the whole nation was in the utmost consternation. He concentrated the troops near Northampton, a position which the rebels could not pass by the direct road, without risking a battle. It was still apprehended that by forced marches, and by advancing with great rapidity, they meant to avoid the Duke by a circuitous route through Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire. Fortunately they trifled away much time in raising the regiments, a proposition of a Mr. Townley, who was appointed the colonel, and afterwards taken prisoner at Carlisle, for which, among many others he was hanged, as we shall hereafter describe.
These daring traitors had despoiled the country as far as Derby, before they were aware of the danger they incurred to themselves. Here they found that the duke was waiting their further progress, advantageously posted, and in force, which they appeared unwilling to engage with. They had actually left Derby, and taken the road to London, when, it was evident, a panic overcame them; for they had barely measured a mile when they halted; held a consultation, wheeled round, and retraced their steps to Derby. On their second visit to this already oppressed town, they levied contributions to a large amount, and threatened destruction to, it, unless instantly complied with. They took what was hastily brought them, meanly plundered whatever fell in their way, and departed sullen and dejected.
From this moment they sought to regain Scotland, and by forced marches the duke pursued them. However oppressive their conduct in advancing, they committed murder and wanton mischief, and seized whatever they could carry off in their retreat. The rebels in arms in Scotland had, before this, been joined by some French troops, the commander of which declared, that he invaded the British dominions in the name of, and for, his master Louis XV.
It is high time in our summary of this very remarkable epoch of the British history, which might fill an interesting volume, to take a view of. the proceedings of the gallant Duke of Cumberland. On the 6th he was at Coventry; with horse, and the infantry encamped upon Meriden Common where they received the warm clothing subscribed for in London, Liverpool, and other towns. On the 9th he pushed on at the head of the cavalry, and a thousand fresh, volunteers, mounted in pursuit of the rebels, with a view to skirmish with, them until the foot came up, but they fled at their utmost speed, through Ashbourn, Leek, Macclesfield, Manchester, Leigh, Wigan, and Preston.
In order to enable the duke, to continue his pursuit, the gentlemen of Staffordshire provided horses to carry the foot soldiers. The flourishing town of Birmingham followed this laudable example, and Sir Lister Holt of Aston Hall, near thereto, furnished 450, sending even his coach-horses on this service; for which be received the public and. private thanks of the English commander in chief
Field-marshal Wade with his detachment of the British army, was at this time at Wakefield. It had been resolved, in a council of war held on the 8th, at Ferrybridge, to march with all expedition into Lancashire, to cut off the retreat of the rebels to Scotland: but finding they, had proceeded too far in their flight to effect this, he dispatched General Oglethorpe with the cavalry to hang upon, and harass their rear.
The French force which landed in favour of the rebels, brought with them a train of artillery of such heavy metal as to require about a dozen of their horses to draw an eighteen-pounder. With this train they advanced from Montrose to Perth, by Brechin. They had every difficulty to encounter; the season rendered the roads extremely bad, and the country people annoyed them in all directions.
At Preston, the rebels wearied with incessant marches for the last three or four days, were compelled to halt a day. This being made known to the Duke of Cumberland, he redoubled his efforts to overtake them with his cavalry. He had seen recently joined by General Oglethorpe, whose squadrons had moved. from Doncaster without a halt; and in three days he gained a hundred miles over snow and ice. By pushing the horses to the extremity, the duke entered Preston only four hours after the rear of the rebels had left it but in turn he was now compelled to halt and refresh.
On the 14th General Oglethorpe was at Garstang, and took his post at Elhilmoor, about three miles from Lancaster. The Liverpool companies arrived at Preston on the 16th, and that town sent a deputation of four of the principal inhabitants to his royal highness, with, offers to supply his troops with whatever they might stand in need of.
At Lancaster the rebels were thrown into the utmost dread on the approach of General Oglethorpe, with the horse, who actually entered the town at one end, as they retreated out of the other. While the horses were feeding in the street, and the soldiers refreshing and preparing for the attack on overtaking the fugitives, the general was called back by an express announcing the invasion of the French. This intelligence proving to have had no foundation, the horse were again ordered to push on, but the rebels had got by that time so much the start, as not to be overtaken.
At Kendal the country rose upon the retreating rebels; they took three of their men, two women, and several horses; in doing which three of the people were killed. The Pretender halted at Shap that night; and fearing to be treated in like manner at Penryth, he endeavoured to avoid that town, in which attempt he was met by an incredible number of incensed inhabitants on Lazenby Moor, on which they turned off to Temple Sowerby, but were hunted and galled the whole day, and at length driven into Orton. Here they could wait only to feed their horses in the street, and then set forward, having pressed a guide, but were pursued by the loyal people of Appleby and Brough, who took the Duke of Perth's mistress and another gentlewoman, whose carriage had broke down. As a retaliation for this interruption, the rebels committed great spoliations as they passed, plundering houses and shops, destroying goods, and stripping men of their shoes, stockings, breeches -- nay, often stripping them altogether.
After several forced marches, the Duke of Cumberland at length came up with the rebels at Lowther Hall, which they had taken possession of, but abandoned it on his approach, and threw themselves into the village of Clifton, three miles from Penryth. The dragoons immediately dismounted, and made so vigorous an attack, that in about an hour's time the rebels were driven back, though in a strong and defensible post. It became dark before the assault was over, and thus it was rendered impossible to calculate their loss, or to pursue them. Of the King's forces, forty were killed and wounded; and among the latter were Colonel Honeywood, Captain East, and the cornets Owen and Hamilton. These officers declared that when fallen, the rebels struck at them with their broadswords crying, "No quarter, kill them." They then, carried off their wounded and fled to Carlisle, which city they held possession of since its disgraceful capitulation; and which the English made immediate preparation to invest.
A fresh detachment from Marshal Wade having joined. the duke, with a train of battering cannon from Whitehaven, he began his line of march for Carlisle, and gave orders for raising the posse comitatus, (the whole body of the people.) Upon his near approach, he found the main body of the rebels had abandoned the city for Scotland, leaving behind a garrison. He however invested it in all quarters, and the besieged fired their cannon with great fury, but little execution.
During these operations, the Seahorse frigate captured a large French ship, a part of a small fleet; full of troops and warlike stores, destined for Scotland, and: brought her into Dover. On board were twenty-two officers, all of whom were Scotch and Irish, provided with corn, missions from the King of France, and, a proportional number of soldiers.
To return to Carlisle: the Duke of Cumberland threw up batteries to bombard it, while the rebels burnt part of the suburbs, and hanged three of the inhabitants. The batteries, which took up several days in constructing, being complete were opened upon the city, but towards evening, ammunition being expended, they ceased, waiting for a supply, which, however, fortunately arrived next day, and the cannonade was resumed, which caused the rebels to hoist the white flag, upon which, it again ceased. In about two bows a f1ag of truce advanced with a rebel officer, who brought a letter signed 'John Hamilton, Governor of Carlisle.' This letter proposed hostages to be given and exchanged, in order to prepare for a capitulation. To this the Duke of Cumberland returned for answer, "That he would make no exchange of hostages with rebels." Another flag arrived from the rebel governor, desiring to know what terms the duke would grant him and his garrison. To this was answered, that the utmost terms he would grant, were, "not to put them to the sword, but to reserve them for His Majesty's pleasure;" whereupon he surrendered the city, praying the duke to intercede for his Majesty's royal clemency, and that the officers' clothes and baggage, might be safe; and at three in the afternoon of the 30th of December, the King's troops once more took possession of the devoted city of Carlisle.
The rebel garrison consisted of the remains of the regiment they raised at Manchester, viz. Towney, their colonel, five captains, six lieutenants, seven ensigns, and an adjutant, who had been a barber, with ninety-three non-commissioned officers, drummers, and private men, chiefly Roman Catholics. The other part of the garrison of Scotch, were the governor, six captains,. seven lieutenants, three ensigns, and one surgeon; and 456 non-commissioned officers and private men. Last, though not least rebellious, was found James Cappock, the Pretender's bishop of the diocese. The French part of this contemptible garrison, as they styled themselves, was Sir Francis Geogean, of Thoulouse, in France, captain in Count Lally's regiment, Colonel Strictland, and Sir John Arbuthnot, captains in the rebel Lord George Drummond's regiment; but the real Frenchmen were, one sergeant and four private soldiers.
These victories, however, by no means put an end to this very formidable rebellion. We must therefore, long as our account already is, follow the contending parties to Scotland, and when our readers recollect, that for this crime, very considerable numbers, as we shall hereafter shew, forfeited their lives, we cannot persuade ourselves, that herein we make even a digression from our avowed object. The main body of the rebels, we have observed, left Carlisle, and in haste moved forward to Scotland, having no impediment to encounter, we pass over their destructive march, until we find the Pretender at Glasgow, the second city of that part of great Britain. On his arrival at Glasgow, the Pretender sent for the Provost (the principal officer of the city) and demanded the names of all those who had subscribed for raising troops against him, threatening to hang him on his refusal. To this the Provost replied, "I will not give up the name of any one person in the city, but myself subscribed more than any other. I thought it my duty, and I am not afraid to die in such a cause." Here they levied a contribution for horses, and promised payment for what they consumed, then ordered the land-tax to be paid: but upon departure said, their expenses should be discharged out of the pretended forfeited rents of Kilsyth. They then marched for Stirling, in possession of the English, commanded by the gallant General Blakeney. The gates could not be defended; they therefore marched in, and summoned the garrison to surrender; but the veteran commander answered, that "he would perish in its ruins, rather than make terms with rebels." In the river of the town were two English men of war, and the rebels, in order to prevent their going further up, erected a battery, which the ships soon destroyed, and caused them to retreat a mile, where they erected another, which did little execution. They now prepared. for a vigorous attack upon the castle, got some heavy pieces of ordnance across the Forth, erected a battery against it, and called in all their forces. General Blakeney fired upon them, and repeatedly drove them from their works.
General Hawley, at the head of such troops as he could form in order of battle, marched to attempt to raise the siege, but the rebels made a desperate attack, at the commencement of which his artillery horses, terrified, broke their traces, and ran away. Some of the dragoons seeing this, also gave way, and in short, the rebels had the advantage. At the beginning of the battle, a violent storm of wind and rain arose, which blew and beat in the faces of the English. General Hawley retreated to Linlithgow. His powder was found spoiled by the excessive rains of that and the preceding day; not a musket in five went off, and the drivers of his waggons, running off with the impressed horses, he was compelled to burn his tents and other stores, and to abandon nearly the whole of his artillery.
Edinburgh being again in the possession of the English, and fears entertained that the rebels meant to abandon the siege of Stirling, and proceed thither, General Hawley was ordered to post himself between those places. The rebels, abandoning Stirling,. laid siege to Fort William, but after a long attack, in which they fired hot bars, in hopes of setting it on fire, they, also gave up that design.
Various were the skirmishes in different parts of Scotland, and frequently to the advantage of the rebels, which we shall pass over in order to bring our history to a close, by presenting the two armies in order of battle, at Culloden; the result of which crushed this rebellion. It is certain, that the rebels entertained the most sanguine hopes of success, from their broadswords, which had already borne them too long in their career: but, when opposed to the English bayonet of veteran troops, they, were as a feather before the wind, nor can the horse make any impression on that formidable weapon, in the hands of a determined infantry. This may be called a pitched battle, for the contending armies having taken the field, determined to abide the issue of the day. They were respectively commanded by the Duke and the Pretender, in their proper persons: and the following, taken from the London Gazette, is the conqueror's account of the battle:
"On Tuesday the 15th the rebels burnt Fort Augustus, which convinced us of their resolution to stand an engagement with the King's troops. We gave our men a day's halt at Nairn, and, on the 16th marched from thence between four and five in, four columns. The three lines of foot (reckoning the reserve for one) were broken into three from the right, which made the three columns equal, and each of five battalions. The artillery and baggage followed the first column upon the right, and the cavalry made the fourth column on the left.
"After we had marched about eight miles, our advanced guard composed of about 40 of Kingston's, and the highlanders, led by the quarter-master-general, perceived the rebels at some distance making a motion towards us; upon which we immediately formed; but finding the rebels were still a good way from us, and that the whole body did not come forward, we put ourselves again upon our march in our former posture, and continued it to within a mile of them, where we again formed in the same order as before. After reconnoitering their situation, we found them posted behind some old walls and huts, in a line with Culloden House. As we thought our right entirely secure, Gen. Hawley and Gen. Bland went to the left with two regiments of dragoons, to endeavour to fall upon the right flank of the rebels, and Kingston's horse was ordered to the reserve. The ten pieces of cannon were disposed, two in each of the intervals of the first line, and all our Highlanders (except about 140, which were upon the left with Gen. Hawley, and who behaved extremely well) were left to guard the baggage.
"When we were advanced within 500 yards of the rebels, we found the morass upon our right was ended, which left our right flank quite uncovered to them; his Royal Highness thereupon immediately ordered Kingston's horse from the reserve, and a little squadron of about 60 of Cobham's which had been patrolling, to cover our flank; and Pulteney's regiment was ordered from the reserve to the right of the Royals.
"We spent above half an hour after that, trying which should gain the flank of the other; and his Royal Highness having sent Lord Bury forward within a hundred yards of the rebels, to reconnoitre somewhat that appeared like a battery to us, they there upon began firing their cannon, which was extremely ill-served and ill-pointed: ours immediately answered them, which began their confusion. They then came running on in their wild Manner: and upon the right where his Royal Highness placed himself, imagining the greater push would be there, they came down three several times within a hundred yards of our men, firing their pistols and brandishing their swords: but the Royals and Pulteney's hardly took their firelocks from their shoulders, so that after those faint attempts they made off, and the little squadrons on our right were sent to pursue them. Gen. Hawley had, by the help of our Highlanders, beat down the little stone walls, and came in upon the right flank of their second line.
"As their whole first line came down to attack at once, their right somewhat out-flanked Barrel's regiment, which was our left, and the greatest part of the little loss we sustained, was there; but Bligh's and Sempil's giving a fire upon those who had out-flanked Barrel's soon repulsed them, and Barrel's regiment and the left of Monro's fairly beat them with their bayonets. There was scarce a soldier or officer of Barrel's, and of that part of Monro's which engaged, who did not kill one or two men each with their bayonets and spontoons. [Note: Spontoons: The officers' half-pikes]
The cavalry, which had charged from the right and left, met in the centre, except two squadrons of dragoons, which we missed, and they were gone in pursuit of the runaways: Lord Ancram was order to pursue with the horse as far as he could; and did it with so good effect that a very considerable number was killed in the pursuit.
"As we were in our march to Inverness, and were nearly arrived there, Major Gen. Bland sent the annexed papers, which he received from the French officers and soldiers, surrendering themselves prisoners to his Royal Highness. Major Gen. Bland had also made great slaughter, and took about 50 French officers and soldiers prisoners in his pursuit.
"By the best calculation that can be made, it is thought the rebels lost 2000 men upon the field of battle, and in the pursuit. We have here 222 French, and 326 rebel prisoners. Lieut. Col. Howard killed an officer, who appeared to be Lord Strathallan, by the seal, and different commissions from the Pretender, found in his pocket.
"It is said Lord Perth, Lord Nairn, Lochiel, Keppock, and Appin Stuart, are also killed. All their artillery and ammunition, were taken, as well as the Pretender's and all their baggage. There were also. twelve colours taken.
"All the generals, officers, and soldiers, did their utmost duty in his Majesty's service, and shewed the greatest zeal and bravery on this occasion.
"The Pretender's son, it is said, lay at Lord Lovat's house at Aird, the night after the action. Brig. Mordaunt is detached with 900 volunteers this morning into the Frazier country, to attack all the rebels he may find there. Lord Sutherland's and Lady Reay's people continue to exert themselves, and have taken upwards of 100 rebels, who are sent for; and there is great reason to believe Lord Cromartie and his son are also taken. The Monroes have killed 50 of the rebels in their flight. As it is not known where the greatest bodies of them are, or which way they have taken in their flight, his Royal Highness has not yet determined which way to march. On the 17th, as his Royal Highness as at dinner, three officers, and about sixteen of Fitz- James's regiment, who were mounted, came and surrendered themselves prisoners.
"The killed, wounded, and missing, of the King's troops, amount to above 300.
"The French officers will be all sent to Carlisle, till his Majesty's pleasure shall be known.
"The rebels, by their own accounts, make their loss greater by 2000 men than we have stated it. Four of their principal ladies are in custody, viz. Lady Ogilvie, Lady Kinloch, Lady Gordon, and the Laird of McIntosh's wife. Major Grant, the Governor of Inverness, is retaken, and the Generals, Hawley, Lord Albemarle, Huske, and Bland, have orders to inquire into the reasons for his surrendering of Fort George.
"Lord Cromartie, Lord M'Leod his son, with other prisoners, are just brought in from Sutherland, by the Hound sloop, which his Royal Highness had sent for them, and they are just now landing."
"To wield the broadsword, and assume the plad,
Avails but little where the cause is bad."